As the first product and the predecessor of ShardingSphere, Sharding-JDBC defines itself as a lightweight Java framework that provides extra service at Java JDBC layer. With the client end connecting directly to the database, it provides service in the form of jar and requires no extra deployment and dependence. It can be considered as an enhanced JDBC driver, which is fully compatible with JDBC and all kinds of ORM frameworks.

  • Applicable in any ORM framework based on JDBC, such as JPA, Hibernate, Mybatis, Spring JDBC Template or direct use of JDBC.
  • Support any third-party database connection pool, such as DBCP, C3P0, BoneCP, Druid, HikariCP.
  • Support any kind of JDBC standard database: MySQL, Oracle, SQLServer, PostgreSQL and any SQL92 followed databases.

Sharding-JDBC Architecture


Sharding-JDBC Sharding-Proxy Sharding-Sidecar
Database Any MySQL/PostgreSQL MySQL/PostgreSQL
Connections Count Cost More Less More
Supported Languages Java Only Any Any
Performance Low loss Relatively High loss Low loss
Decentralization Yes No No
Static Entry No Yes No

Sharding-JDBC is suitable for java application.

Internal Structure

The class diagrams for Domain Model

Yellow Part

The yellow part in the diagram indicates the API entrance of Sharding-JDBC, provided in factory method. There are two kinds of factories, ShardingDataSourceFactory and MasterSlaveDataSourceFactory for now. ShardingDataSourceFactory is used to create JDBC drivers of sharding databases with sharding tables or sharding databases with sharding tables+read-write split; MasterSlaveDataSourceFactory is used to create JDBC drivers of read-write split.

Blue Part

The blue part in the diagram indicates configuration objects of Sharding-JDBC, which provides flexible configuration methods. ShardingRuleConfiguration is the core and entrance of sharding database and sharding table configuration, which can include many TableRuleConfiguration and MasterSlaveRuleConfiguration. Each group of sharding tables with same rules is set with a TableRuleConfiguration. If sharding databases with sharding tables and read-write split are used together, each logic database of read-write split is set with a MasterSlaveRuleConfiguration. Each TableRuleConfiguration is corresponding to a ShardingStrategyConfiguration and it has 5 types to choose.

Read-write split uses MasterSlaveRuleConfiguration.

Red Part

The red part in the diagram indicates internal objects, which are used in Sharding-JDBC and needless to be focused by application developers. Sharding-JDBC uses ShardingRuleConfiguration and MasterSlaveRuleConfiguration to generate rule objects used by ShardingDataSource and MasterSlaveDataSource. Implemented with DataSource interface, ShardingDataSource and MasterSlaveDataSource are complete implementation schemes of JDBC.

Initialization Process

  1. Configure Configuration objects.
  2. Transfer Configuration objects to Rule objects through Factory objects.
  3. Equip Rule objects and DataSource objects through Factory objects.
  4. Sharding-JDBC uses DataSource objects to split databases.

Use Convention

Classes in org.apache.shardingsphere.api and org.apache.shardingsphere.shardingjdbc.api packages are API open to users, the modifications of which will be declared in release notes. As internal implementations, classes in other packages can adjust any time, please not use them directly.