The list of available SQL syntax

Because of the flexibility and complexity of SQL syntax and the different handling for SQL queries for distributed databases and single database, not all of the SQLs can be used in Sharding-JDBC.

This section lists the supported SQL syntax and the unsupported SQL syntax for user to look up. In the future, more and more SQL syntaxes will be supported in Sharding-JDBC.

The global unsupported items

Support some kinds of subqueries

Please refer to The Pagination and subquery

Does not support SQL that contains redundant parentheses

Does not support OR

Does not support CASE WHEN

The global supported items



SELECT select_expr [, select_expr ...] FROM table_reference [, table_reference ...]
[WHERE where_condition] 
[GROUP BY {col_name | position} [ASC | DESC]] 
[ORDER BY {col_name | position} [ASC | DESC], ...] 
[LIMIT {[offset,] row_count | row_count OFFSET offset}]


* | 
COLUMN_NAME [AS] [alias] | 
(MAX | MIN | SUM | AVG)(COLUMN_NAME | alias) [AS] [alias] | 
COUNT(* | COLUMN_NAME | alias) [AS] [alias]


tbl_name [AS] alias] [index_hint_list] | 
table_reference ([INNER] | {LEFT|RIGHT} [OUTER]) JOIN table_factor [JOIN ON conditional_expr | USING (column_list)] | 

The examples


SQL Unconditional Condition
SELECT * FROM tbl_name Y
SELECT * FROM tbl_name WHERE col1 = val1 ORDER BY col2 DESC LIMIT limit Y
SELECT COUNT(*), SUM(col1), MIN(col1), MAX(col1), AVG(col1) FROM tbl_name WHERE col1 = val1 Y
SELECT COUNT(col1) FROM tbl_name WHERE col2 = val2 GROUP BY col1 ORDER BY col3 DESC LIMIT offset, limit Y


SQL Unconditional Condition
INSERT INTO tbl_name (col1, col2,…) VALUES (val1, val2,….) N Add Sharding columns into insert columns.
INSERT INTO tbl_name VALUES (val1, val2,….) N Inject Sharding columns by Hint.
UPDATE tbl_name SET col1 = val1 WHERE col2 = val2 Y
DELETE FROM tbl_name WHERE col1 = val1 Y


SQL Unconditional Condition
CREATE TABLE tbl_name (col1 int,…) Y
ALTER TABLE tbl_name ADD col1 varchar(10) Y
DROP TABLE tbl_name Y
CREATE INDEX idx_name ON tbl_name Y
DROP INDEX idx_name ON tbl_name Y
DROP INDEX idx_name Y Configure logic-index in tableRule.

The unsupported SQL

INSERT INTO tbl_name (col1, col2, …) VALUES (val1, val2,….), (val3, val4,….)
INSERT INTO tbl_name (col1, col2, …) SELECT col1, col2, … FROM tbl_name WHERE col3 = val3
INSERT INTO tbl_name SET col1 = val1
SELECT DISTINCT * FROM tbl_name WHERE column1 = value1
SELECT * FROM tbl_name WHERE column1 = value1 OR column1 = value2
SELECT COUNT(col1) as count_alias FROM tbl_name GROUP BY col1 HAVING count_alias > val1
SELECT * FROM tbl_name1 UNION SELECT * FROM tbl_name2
SELECT * FROM tbl_name1 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM tbl_name2
SELECT * FROM tbl_name1 WHERE (val1=?) AND (val1=?)